× ×

Who We Are

× ×

About EA

× ×


× ×



Toxicity Identification Evaluation/Toxicity Reduction Evaluation

A TRE is a site-specific multidisciplinary program aimed at bringing a facility back into compliance with whole effluent toxicity (WET) permit requirements. A TRE is a step-wise logical program that consists of: evaluation of site-specific information, identification of the cause or source of toxicity (referred to as toxicity identification evaluation [TIE]), selection and implementation of an appropriate toxicity control strategy/technology, and confirmation of the reduction or elimination of effluent toxicity. A TRE relies on “weight of evidence” reasoning, and it is critical to maintain flexibility (schedule, strategy, and budget) throughout the program.

The objective of the TIE procedure is to identify the specific chemical(s) or categories of chemical(s) that may be contributing to WET. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Phase I TIE methods (EPA 1991) characterize the physical and chemical nature of the toxicants. Phase II TIE methods (EPA 1993a) are intended to further characterize and identify the cause(s) of toxicity in effluents, and Phase III methods (EPA 1993b) are designed to confirm that the suspected toxicants are indeed the cause(s) of the measured toxicity.

EA brings a consulting approach to TIE/TREs, assisting our clients in the process of meeting compliance requirements. The methods for TIE/TREs apply to effluents, sediment pore water, sediment elutriates, hazardous waste leachates, and sediments (EPA 2007). The scientists at EA can custom design a study to meet each facility’s needs.

EA scientists have been instrumental in the development and refinement of TIE/TRE methods and strategies since their inception in 1985. EA’s experience and involvement in the TIE/TRE arena is highlighted by the following:

  • EA co-authored the first and second editions of EPA’s TRE Guidance for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (EPA 600/2 88/062 and EPA/833/B-99/002). The second edition (1999) includes guidance on state-of-the-science procedures such as toxicity tracking methods (e.g., Refractory Toxicity Assessment Protocol).
  • EA co-authored EPA’s Generalized Methodology for Conducting Industrial TREs (EPA/600/2-88/070).
  • EA performed the first and largest EPA TRE case study (1986-1987), which was a cooperative EPA/City of Baltimore municipal TRE program conducted at the Patapsco Wastewater Treatment Plant.

TIE/TRE Methodology

EPA. 1991. Methods for Aquatic Toxicity Identification Evaluations: Phase I Toxicity Characterization Procedures. EPA-600-6-91-003. February.

EPA. 1993a. Methods for Aquatic Toxicity Identification Evaluations: Phase II Toxicity Identification Procedures for Samples Exhibiting Acute and Chronic Toxicity. EPA-600-6-91-003. September.

EPA. 1993b. Methods for Aquatic Toxicity Identification Evaluations: Phase III Toxicity Confirmation Procedures for Samples Exhibiting Acute and Chronic Toxicity. EPA-600-6-91-003. September.

EPA. 2007. Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation: Phases I, II, and III Guidance Document. EPA 600-R-07-080. September.


Contact Us



Office Locations

View Map



745 W 4th Avenue
Suite 425
Anchorage, AK 99501
Mike Jones P: 907-334-3909 mjones@eaest.com


3544 International Way
Fairbanks, AK 99701
Travis Hines P: 907-646-0220 thines@eaest.com



700 Research Center Blvd
Suite 2221
Fayetteville, AR 72701
Matthew Frigon, PhD P: 479-575-2136 mfrigon@eaest.com



555 University Avenue
Suite 110
Sacramento, CA 95825
Chris Canonica P: 916-604-4365 ccanonica@eaest.com



7995 E Prentice Ave.
Suite 206E
Greenwood Village, CO 80111
Sarah Babcock P: 303-590-9140 sbabcock@eaest.com



131 Continental Drive
Suite 203
Newark, DE 19713
Kathy Fox P: 302-467-3025 kfox@eaest.com


Warner Robins

108 Byrd Way
Suite 600
Warner Robins, GA 31088-9199
Nick Jewett P: 478-308-7375 njewett@eaest.com


1001 Army Drive
Suite 103
Barrigada, GU 96913-1402
Bob Shambach P: 671-646-5231 rshambach@eaest.com



615 Piikoi Street
Suite 515
Honolulu, HI 96814
Chip Brown P: 808-589-1455 cbrown@eaest.com



444 Lake Cook Road
Suite 18
Deerfield, IL 60015
Joe Vondruska P: 847-945-8010 jvondruska@eaest.com


Corporate Headquarters

225 Schilling Circle
Suite 400
Hunt Valley, MD 21031
Ian MacFarlane P: 410-584-7000 imacfarlane@eaest.com

Ecotoxicology & Biology Labs

231 Schilling Circle
Hunt Valley, MD 21031
Michael Chanov P: 410-584-7000 mchanov@eaest.com


1311 Continental Drive
Suite K
Abingdon, MD 21009
Scott Dobson P: 410-671-6051 sdobson@eaest.com

Ocean Pines

11200 Racetrack Road
Unit A101
Ocean Pines, MD 21811
Darl Kolar P: 410-641-5341 dkolar@eaest.com



5918 Meridian Boulevard
Suite 4
Brighton, Michigan 48116
Arthur Peitsch P: 734-369-3410 apeitsch@eaest.com



54 North Last Chance Gulch
Suite 14
Helena, MT 59601
Catherine LeCours P: 406-936-0022 clecours@eaest.com



221 Sun Valley Blvd
Suite D
Lincoln, NE 68528
Dale Schlautman P: 402-476-3766 dschlautman@eaest.com

New Mexico


320 Gold Avenue, SW
Suite 1300
Albuquerque, NM 87102
Jay Snyder P: 505-224-9013 jsnyder@eaest.com

New York


P.O. Box 144
25 Western Avenue, 2nd Floor
Marlboro, NY 12542
Melanie Dina P: 845-565-8100 mdina@eaest.com


82-B Creamery Road
Oswego, NY 13126
Gary Prye P: 315-342-1419 gprye@eaest.com


269 W Jefferson Street
Syracuse, NY 13202
Bob Casey P: 315-431-4610 rcasey@eaest.com

Rhode Island


301 Metro Center Blvd
Suite 102
Warwick, RI 02886-3440
Ron Mack P: 401-736-3440 rmack@eaest.com



405 State Highway 121 (Bypass)
Building C, Suite 100
Lewisville, TX 75067
Roger Place P: 972-315-3922 rplace@eaest.com


11550 Cypress N Houston Rd
Cypress, TX 77429
John Bonner P: 832-912-4038 jbonner@eaest.com

San Antonio

13750 San Pedro Ave.
Suite B10
San Antonio, TX 78232
Brian O'Ferrall P: 210-546-2129 boferrall@eaest.com


Virginia Beach

4429 Bonney Road
Suite 430
Virginia Beach, VA 23462
Chris Penny P: 757-693-6014 cpenny@eaest.com



2200 6th Avenue
Suite 707
Seattle, WA 98121
Tim McCormack P: 206-452-5350 tmccormack@eaest.com

EA Satellite Residential locations (Contact 1-800-777-9750)

Dunedin, FL

Rick Hanoski

North Salem, IN

Matthew Bowman

Overland Park, KS

James Beaver

Dover, NH

Amy Hunt

Pennsville, NJ

John Fellinger

Spencerport, NY

Caryn Kiehl-Simpson

Lubbock, TX

Danny Leaks